Monday, March 16, 2020
In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society smoking is the new drug. People are trying to ban it permanently. The only places to smoke comfortably is in your own home. Smokers are treated differently than nonsmokers. There are several advertisements, and commercials making the public aware of second hand smoke. People who smoke are putting the other people around them in danger. Smokers should be held responsible for their actions, and segregated from nonsmokers. There are several laws that protect the rights of nonsmokers. These laws regulate where smokers make smoke. Such as the clean indoor air act. One website describes this act as a law to protect the public from toxic chemicals in second hand smoke by restricting where smoking is permitted in public places, restaurants, and places of employment (Ã¢â¬Å"Answers To Frequently Asked Questions About Smoking Restrictions Designed to Protect Public the HealthÃ¢â¬ ). This law protects the rights of nonsmokers, and ask that smokers go outside of public places to smoke. Nonsmokers around smokers put themselves at a greater risk for health problems. There are several commercials, and advertisements encouraging nonsmokers to protest against smokers. Stanley Scott says, Ã¢â¬Å" This year, for example, the American Cancer Society is promoting programs that encourage people to attack smokers with canisters of gas, to blast them with horns, to squirt them with oversized water guns, and burn them in effigyÃ¢â¬ (138). This is persuading nonsmokers to take a stand against a smokers. Yes smoking has decreased in the past couple of years. A website said 27% of Americans smoke (1991) versus 29% in 1987 and 44% in 1964 (Ã¢â¬Å"Smoking StatisticsÃ¢â¬ ). Although the number of people smoking has lowered, the amount of cigarettes smokers have consumed has risen. The website also says the percentage of heavy smokers is 27% (1987) versus 26% (1974) (Ã¢â¬Å"Smoking StatisticsÃ¢â¬ ). This makes nonsmokers angry because the people who are smoking c... Free Essays on Smokers Segregated From Society Free Essays on Smokers Segregated From Society In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society smoking is the new drug. People are trying to ban it permanently. The only places to smoke comfortably is in your own home. Smokers are treated differently than nonsmokers. There are several advertisements, and commercials making the public aware of second hand smoke. People who smoke are putting the other people around them in danger. Smokers should be held responsible for their actions, and segregated from nonsmokers. There are several laws that protect the rights of nonsmokers. These laws regulate where smokers make smoke. Such as the clean indoor air act. One website describes this act as a law to protect the public from toxic chemicals in second hand smoke by restricting where smoking is permitted in public places, restaurants, and places of employment (Ã¢â¬Å"Answers To Frequently Asked Questions About Smoking Restrictions Designed to Protect Public the HealthÃ¢â¬ ). This law protects the rights of nonsmokers, and ask that smokers go outside of public places to smoke. Nonsmokers around smokers put themselves at a greater risk for health problems. There are several commercials, and advertisements encouraging nonsmokers to protest against smokers. Stanley Scott says, Ã¢â¬Å" This year, for example, the American Cancer Society is promoting programs that encourage people to attack smokers with canisters of gas, to blast them with horns, to squirt them with oversized water guns, and burn them in effigyÃ¢â¬ (138). This is persuading nonsmokers to take a stand against a smokers. Yes smoking has decreased in the past couple of years. A website said 27% of Americans smoke (1991) versus 29% in 1987 and 44% in 1964 (Ã¢â¬Å"Smoking StatisticsÃ¢â¬ ). Although the number of people smoking has lowered, the amount of cigarettes smokers have consumed has risen. The website also says the percentage of heavy smokers is 27% (1987) versus 26% (1974) (Ã¢â¬Å"Smoking StatisticsÃ¢â¬ ). This makes nonsmokers angry because the people who are smoking c...
Friday, February 28, 2020
Humans' Limit - Essay Example Thus, limiting what you are doing plays an important role in your life. In the story Ã¢â¬Å"Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , there are so many unnecessary extremes; which are obsession, super strictness and discrimination, causing a sad ending. Must we cease to exist before it is understood that we as humans have reached our mortal limit? According to the fiction piece Ã¢â¬Å"Rose for EmilyÃ¢â¬ , EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s father himself was actually a strict person with his child. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t allow Emily to go out of the house like the other children did since she was young. It is clear as to why he behaved this way. He loved his daughter and does not want her to be misled. But if we reflect on how the child may have felt, it is clear that she could have had a better childhood. All kids deserve to be happy. In fact, keeping Emily inside the house only causes her to lose her sense of motivation, communication, and knowledge of how to survive in society. She subsequently loses all her positive view on the world since the world she is living is not the same as others. Her life would be extremely routine consisting of getting up in the morning, eating what her father fed her, and obeying her father Looking at in psychologically, it is clear that EmilyÃ¢â¬â¢s complacency with the world around her can lead her into depression and mental disorders.
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
Human Resources Management challenges in Middle East - Essay Example Any organization seeks to succeed in establishing an effective human resource management as it correlates with the performance of an organization. Actually, effective human resource management enhances the performance of the employees and the entire company direction that aids in accomplishing the organization's goals and objectives (McNamara, 2012). Although, the human resource manager is responsible for human resource management in an organization, line mangers can equally take up this mandate upon authorization by the executive management of an organization. In the Middle East, HRM is a very fundamental aspect in business. Some of the richest countries in the world are in the Middle East and include UAE, Saudi Arabia, and Qatar. Nevertheless, some of the poorest countries in the world are also found in the Middle East and include Yemen and Sudan. ... The study on managing Human Resources in the Middle East generates an understanding on the dynamics and variables that dictate HRM policies and practices in this region. This paper will address human resource management in the Middle East countries and the challenges relating to it. The paper will highlight the models and future challenges for HRM policies and practices. The paper will specifically address HRM in Saudi Arabia and UAE while analysing the main features of these countries. It will equally denote the similarities and differences of these countries in HRM-related challenges. At the same time, the paper will address the ways by which each country can benefit from the knowledge and experience of the other as well as explaining the main challenges in developing a managerial career in Saudi Arabia. An overview of the main features of UAE and Saudi Arabia This paper will address the human resource management challenges with special concern on UAE and Saudi Arabia, which are bo th Middle East countries. The United Arab Emirates constitutes of seven emirates that include Dubai, Umm al-Qaiwain, Abu Dhabi, Fujairah, Sharjah, Ajman, and Ras al-Khaimah (Emirates.org, 2010). Geographically, UAE occupies an area of 83,600 sq. km along the southeast tip of the Arabian Peninsula. It lies east of Qatar, northeast of Saudi Arabia, and south west of Oman. Abu Dhabi is the largest of the seven federations and doubles as the capital city of The United Arab Emirates. UAE is currently one of the world's fastest growing tourist destinations. UAE has huge oil reserves estimated at 97.8 billion barrels in 2011, and gas reserves estimated at 214.2 trillion cubic feet. UAE has an estimated population of 8.9 million residents of which about a
Friday, January 31, 2020
Literature of the Japanese Golden Age - Essay Example Japanese literature is not as prominent and popular as the Western literature; but it is nevertheless rich in literary traditions and folk stories. Drawing upon almost one and a half millennium of writings, the categorization of Japanese literature into time-bound periods has been the centre of debates and conflicts (Japanese Lifestyle, 2010). Towards late 8th century, the emperor of Japan had an entire city planned and built on a new site, encompassed my verdant mountains, this city which is today referred to as Ã¢â¬ËKyotoÃ¢â¬â¢ was then popularly known as Heian-kyÃ ´, which in literal terminology meant Ã¢â¬Ëthe city of tranquilityÃ¢â¬â¢, Heian period named after this city and spanning from 794 to 1185 is regarded as the Golden Age of Japan, marked by peace and harmony, as the country and its nationals devoted time to the development of classical culture of Japan that lives to date, these are even read and venerated by the Japanese people in contemporary times. It is this period wherein the Japanese began to transfer from a Chinese influenced literature to a pure Japanese literature, referred to as the Classical Literature period (William and McCullough, 1980). The culture that thrived in this period gave boost to aesthetic writings, stories of everyday lives of the Japanese individuals were written and made inh erent in the history, with their belief that love and compassion is the foremost emotion an individual can have, since the Heian period focused on peace, harmony and solidarity rather than war and bravery as cherished by their later militant counterparts, stories of love and epics of romance became readily acceptable and regarded, the mark of which can be seen in Japanese art and literature even today due to the fact that the patricians of this era associated human accomplishment with the development and progress in art, music and poetry. Women also gained
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Meditations is a discussion of metaphysics, or what is truly real. In these writings, he ultimately hopes to achieve absolute certainty about the nature of everything including God, the physical world, and himself. It is only with a clear and distinct knowledge of such things that he can then begin understand his true reality. Descartes starts by looking at our usual sources for truth. Authority, which is churches, parents, and schools, he says, are not reliable sources for truth because time shows we all die, and that we are eventually proved wrong, much in the same way the accepted truths of science have changed dramatically over the course of history. Also, he considers the generally excepted view that our senses dependably report the absolute nature of reality. Simiar to authority, Descartes discards the senses as a source of truth because of the Ã¢â¬Å"Dream ArgumentÃ¢â¬ or the belief that based on the senses there is no definite way of proving that you are dreaming or that you are awake. Therefore it is possible that everything we believe is false, making the senses an unreliable source. Upon establishing this, Descartes doubts the existence of a physical or external world. Despite that he has an idea of things in the world, he has no way of knowing if they exist past his own mind. Another point he addresses is mathematics. He soon realizes mathÃ¢â¬â¢s truth isnÃ¢â¬â¢t completely reliable because of the Ã¢â¬Å"Demon HypothesisÃ¢â¬ , which acknowledges the possibility of an all powerful being that is deceiving him about everything, including mathematics. As a result, Descartes ponders the possibility that he has no way of being completely positive about anything, even his existence. It is only after some deliberation that he decides that it is impossible to be incorrect about everything because he has doubt, and to posses doubt, there must be a doubter. Hence, he doubts, therefore he exists. With the assurance of his existence, he is presented with the deeper question of what he, himself, actually is. Descartes knows that he is not just a body based on his doubt of the senses. Despite the fact that he feels he is not a body, he does believe he has properties, such as doubt, that make him a substance. From this he concludes that his is an immaterial substance and that his essential property is self-consciousness because you can have no real proof of yourself except through your own... ...man life is acquisition of salvation and eternal life. Conversely, what science tells us is that the world is completely deterministic or all just a course of random evolution. Descartes feels that the two, mind and matter, are in completely different arenas, both of which were created by God. The mind deals chiefly with freedom, and personal responsibility, which lies in the field of religion. Whereas matter is more connected to science, buts doesn't negate the influence of God because God provided us with a system, mathematics, to better understand the physical world around us. Thus, if accurately comprehended, no conflict should arise between science and religion. Descartes' focus in Meditations is absolute certainty. To achieve this he first must strike all that he has come to accept as false and only then start to rebuild is foundation of knowledge. To insure the integrity of his newly acquired understanding of reality, he uses the method of doubt. It is only through this method that he can grasp the true nature of reality. After establishing the existence of himself, God, and the external world through this method, Descartes feels he now possess a clearer picture of reality.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM| EE2G Ã¢â¬â Design Report| THE GREAT EGG RACE| | | 25. 01. 2012| Table of Contents Appendix3 The Group Contract3 Introduction4 Literature Review4 History of mobile robots:4 The history of the line-following robots:5 Ongoing a most advanced projects on line-following robots or line-following based robots:5 Aims:6 Objectives:6 Requirements:6 System Decomposition7 Group Management Structure9 Name of the Robot9 Mechanical Design10 Technical Options, Critical Review and Final Design Choice10 Option 110 Option 211Review of the Frame12 Review of the Wheels12 Final Design13 Electronic Design14 Technical Options, Critical Review and Final Design Choice14 The Control Unit:14 The chosen microcontroller and the reasons: PIC16F64815 Stepper Motors Unit:16 The Driver Unit16 Software Design18 Technical Options, Critical Review and Final Design Choice18 Odd or even number of sensors18 The Number of Sensors18 The shape in which the sensors are put together18 The angle of t he V19 How does the program work? 19 Time Management plan22 Risk Assessment24Very possible, low cost and manageable risks24 The plans we have specifically come up with for the Robot project25 Components Wish List26 Conclusion28 References29 Appendix The Group Contract As a group, EGM had one target, to bring life to ICKI. This would not happen but with cooperation and hard work. By signing this contract you declare: * EGM will do the tasks they are responsible for by the internal deadline decided. * If EGM had any problems fulfilling any of their responsibilities they should inform the group leader in advance. EGM should back up all their group mates in unexpected and hard situations. * EGM should trust their group mates for their capability of doing their own responsibilities however this does not mean that they cannot say their opinion and ideas. * As the work break down has been decided when the entire group have been together, EGM is not allowed to complain about the inconsisten cy in the work division among the members of the group. * In any case when all the group members cannot get to agree on one subject they will have to count votes.If they tie they will have to ask a personÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion every group member trusts. (Or they can flip a coin alternatively. ) * If EGM wants to change any of the plans, they should discuss it with the rest of the group first. They are not allowed to accept doing something and do it in their own way without a group agreement. * EGM is responsible for attending all the group meetings unless they have a convincing reason not doing so. If any of the group members disobeys any of the statements above, the rest of the group has the right to reduce their mark upon agreement.Delaram SharifiZhanar Samayeva Hedieh Ekhlasi Xun Liu Introduction The purpose of this initial report is to survey the created plan made in order to accomplish the given Robot Project. This project is given to entire second year and the purpose of the projec t is to design and construct an autonomous robot that should follow the dark line track on a light background. First there is an overview on the line follower robots in literature review , The aims, objectives and requirements will follow the review. Literature ReviewThe line-following robots are classified under the Ã¢â¬Å"Mobile RobotsÃ¢â¬ . Mobile Robots are the robots which do not have a fixed base; they can move around and do not physically stand at one location. These kinds of robots are fairly important as it is stated in this part of the article from WikipediaÃ¢â¬â¢s Mobile robot is stated below: Ã¢â¬Å"Mobile robots are the focus of a great deal of current research and almost every major university has one or more labs that focus on mobile robot research. Mobile robots are also found in industry, military and security environments.They also appear as consumer products, for entertainment or to perform certain tasks like vacuum, gardening and some other common household t asks. Ã¢â¬ History of mobile robots: The first mobile robots were built during the World War II with the main purpose of producing flying bombs and radars. The next generations would follow a light source, determine if there are any obstacles and plug in themselves when their battery was low and according to the needs they would have different functions and made huge improvements in the progress so that they cover a very wide range of features.Line-following robots which are the main subject of this project are classified as Ã¢â¬Å"Land or Home WheeledÃ¢â¬ robots. It is necessary to be said that the technology is far more advanced now that the robots with human like or animal like legs to provide mobility rather than legs exist. The technology has gone as far as making intelligent human-like robot (Androids), with a variety of capabilities such as speaking, voice recognition, face recognition, human like movements, dancing and singing.The purposes behind these projects are com ing from a variety of backgrounds as well such as: Household robot which can undertakes any of a house holds maidÃ¢â¬â¢s duties and science fiction movie productions. The pioneer countries in Android are Japan, Korea, the US, the UK and Iran. The information above are to show how advance the technology has gone in mobile robots but since the aims set for this project require very much lower level of understanding the mobile robots, this subject will not be discussed further. The history of the line-following robots:The designs of the first line-follower robot in 1960 was basically built for the purpose of getting controlled from earth while it is on the moon using a camera on it for processing images and video which has been unsuccessful. At 1970 the robot ended up following a high contrast white line under controlled lighting conditions at a speed of about 0. 8 mph which is pretty different to this robot projectsince we have more advanced programming equipment and processors, the robot of ours uses sensors rather than the video cameras to use less process. The main aim is thoroughly different too.The fist line-following robot was followed by more commercial used robots for which could do vacuuming and cleaning the floor. They used sensors to get the objects out of their way which is the method in which this projectÃ¢â¬â¢s robot will determine its track, using sensors. Ongoing a most advanced projects on line-following robots or line-following based robots: The most advanced of the line followers according to the Wikipedia, DARPA website, Kiva systems and spec -minder website are : Ã¢â¬Å"DARPA Urban Grand Challenge, with six vehicles autonomously completing a complex course involving manned vehicles and obstacles. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"Kiva SystemsÃ clever robots proliferate in distribution operations; these smart shelving units sort themselves according to the popularity of their contents. The Tug becomes a popular means for hospitals to move large cabinets of st ock from place to place. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"TheÃ Speci-MinderÃ with Motivity begins carrying blood and other patient samples from nurses' stations to various labs. Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬Å"Seekur, the first widely available, non-military outdoor service robot, pulls a 3-ton vehicle across a parking lotÃ , drives autonomously indoors and begins learning how to navigate itself outside. Ã¢â¬Å"Boston Dynamics released video footage of a new generationÃ BigDogÃ able to walk on icy terrain and recover its balance when kicked from the side. Ã¢â¬ The mentioned robots are very advanced using not only basic reflective switch sensors but also cameras to detect whatever their purpose is. Since this project requires simple solution to make the robot built fast and work fast these could not very much help in the process of building the robot. According to the websites and also reports available on the internet, every university which does computer science or electrical engineering has got some ki nd of robot project and mainly line followers.The specific specifications are moderately different but in all projects the main purpose is practicing an actual project in real life and knowing how to use simple and quick circuit design, program and implementation. The MINI Line follower robot for example has the most similar specifications to this project. The robot needs to follow a line powering up by a battery with size limitations. Kerman, Judith B. (1991). Retrofitting Blade Runner: Issues in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner and Philip K. Dick's Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. ISBN 0-87972-509-5. Perkowitz, Sidney (2004). Digital People: From Bionic Humans to Androids. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 0-309-09619-7. Shelde, Per (1993). Androids, Humanoids, and Other Science Fiction Monsters: Science and Soul in Science Fiction Films. New York: New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-7930-1. http://www. stanford. edu/~learne st/cart. htm http://www. richardvannoy. info/building-a-line-following-robot. pdf http://ikalogic. com/proj_mini_line_folower. php ttp://online. physics. uiuc. edu/courses/phys405/P405_Projects/Fall2005/Robot_project_jaseung_. pdf http://nereus. mech. ntua. gr/pdf_ps/aim11. pdf Aims: * To design and construct an autonomous robot * The robot to be completed on time * To build the robot with its maximum speed * Build the robot with all the possibilities to win the race Objectives: * To come up with the ideas * To work as a team. Review and practice the skills of teamwork * To get experience of systems engineering * Improve electronic and mechanical practical design skillsRequirements: * The robot must follow the line a) The line is 50mm wide b) The line is 10m long c) The line is black on white background d) The line has maximum corners of 900 e) The line is horizontal * The robot must move forward * The robot must carry an egg a) The mass of egg is 25gr (approx. ) b) The size of egg is 5cm x 3cm (approx. ) System Decomposition System is an organized, purposeful structure regarded as a whole and consisting of interrelated and interdependent elements such as components, entities, factors, members, or parts.According to the Robot Project, the robot itself is the system, as it is consists of different subsystems, while the subsystems made of the components. Being more related to the Robot, it can be explained as the Mechanical, Electronic and Software Designs are the main subsystems, while the elements of each subsystem is defined as the components. The figure below shows the Robot system decomposition for better explanation: Figure [ 1 ]- The System Decomposition for the robot Group Management Structure During the meetings the work allocations between group members were discussed.The works as mechanical, electronic, programming, report, DVD film and logbook were divided between each in the group. To give one work division per group member means to put a big respon sibility on him, as every part has a big amount of not easy work to be done, and it can cause the difficulty in understanding the job that will lead to uncertainty. So every part has two members to work on it, and every group member has 3 jobs to be done by the end of the project and the work allocations are as followings: * Team Leader : Delaram Sharifi * Mechanical: Zhanar ; Hedieh Electronic: Xun ; Delaram * Programming: Delaram ; Hedieh * Reports: Zhanar ; Hedieh * DVD Film: Xun ; Zhanar * Logbook: Delaram ; Xun Name of the Robot The first thing was done by group is creating the name for the future robot. This process made the group to be more opened, close-knit, and creative, as well as the process helped to improve the team working. A lot of options we considered, but the main aim of giving the name was to create something that can reflect all of the group members in one name. So the final choice made by the group is the name ICKI.It stands by the countries of the each group m ember which are Iran, China, Kazakhstan, and Iran again. Mechanical Design Mechanical design for the robot presents many challenges and its main idea is to make it simple and affordable. The mechanical design of autonomous robot is including: * RobotÃ¢â¬â¢s Wheels. They are one of the most important assemblies of the mechanical platform. * RobotÃ¢â¬â¢s Frame. This frame is mechanical platform of robot and due to the frame all the parts are hold together * Motors. To control the speed and direction of the robot. * Sensors. To detect the direction.Technical Options, Critical Review and Final Design Choice During one of the meetings there are two options of mechanical design were discussed. Two group members responsible for the design presented their ideas to the group with all the aspects, advantages and disadvantages. The option as followings: Option 1 The first option was presented as the robot with the round shape. Then the robot would have 2 wheels by the left and right sides, 2 motors, line with 5 sensors in the front and the frame of HDPE (High Density Poly Ethylene), i. e. plastic. Figure 2-Round Shape Option 2The second option is to make more traditional, the rectangular one. The rectangular robot with the frame and base of Aluminum or HDPE, with 2 wheels on the sides and with the Ã¢â¬Å"VÃ¢â¬ shape line sensors and the skid on the front. The skid will help to control the balance. Figure 3-Rectangular Shape After presenting the options of the mechanical design for the robot some advantages and disadvantages were written for each of the option that helped the group to choose the right one. During the discussion of the design, three things were considered: capacity, light weight and low to the ground.As long as two motors are used for the construction of the robot and each motor can take one wheel, the neediness in wheels is just for two. So two wheels connected to the motors at the back of the robot is enough to control the rout and the skid connec ted to the sensor board in the front can help the autonomous robot control the balance. The robotÃ¢â¬â¢s size is to be about 12cm to 14 cm and 4 cm is for the wheels. Review of the Frame The frame is the basic structure to which everything should be attached and Aluminum and HDPE were considered as the frame.First of all, Aluminum is strong, light, and easy to cut and drill while HDPE is the same light, strong, easy to shape and cut but also the cheap one. In comparison, HDPE has a very low thermal conductivity, and a higher strength to weight ratio than Aluminum. Review of the Wheels All the group members agreed that the large diameter wheels give the robot low torque but high velocity and if the motors strong enough then the wheels with larger diameter better to use. The speed of the robot depends on the size of the wheels and it is good to have them between 1cm and 2 cm.Here are some advantages and disadvantages of the first and second options that were made during the discussi ons on the meetings: | First OptionThe Round Shape| Second OptionThe Rectangular Shape| Advantages| * Beautiful, unusual design * HDPE frame | * HDPE frame * The front skid * Ã¢â¬Å"VÃ¢â¬ shape line sensors * Compact| Disadvantages| * Distance between wheels and sensors is not enough to make turns right after the sensor is detected * Not enough of space for circuit board, 2 motors and sensors, that makes the design not compact| * Usual Design| Table [ 1 ] Advantages and Disadvantages for the design optionsFinal Design Taking into account all the reviews made and the table of advantages and disadvantages the decision was made is to choose the second option of the mechanical design, and to change some nuances as to use HDPE for the frame together with the Ã¢â¬Å"VÃ¢â¬ shape line sensors (also see Software Design) and add a spoon in the middle between the wheels that is the best position to keep the balance for an egg. So the final result would look like: Figure 4-Final Design El ectronic Design The Circuit is consisted of 5 units. Sensors are acting as the input. The control unit controls every component in the circuit.The driver provides enough power for the stepper motor to move the robot. The Power supply powers up the whole circuit. Sensors Control Unit Driver Stepper Motors Power Supply Figure 5-Block Diagram Technical Options, Critical Review and Final Design Choice The Control Unit: AVR/PIC/8051 8051: an old but very popular controller. The older 8051s are kind of slow: 12 clocks per instruction. Newer 8051s have 6 clocks per instruction up to 1 clock per instruction. The selection of low pin count devices is a bit limited. Most 8051s have an external memory bus that makes it easy to add memory and peripherals.CISC has free C compiler. PIC: Slightly less old than the 8051. PICs are popular with both industrial developers and hobbyists alike due to their low cost, wide availability, large user base, extensive collection of application notes, availabil ity of low cost or free development tools, and serial programming (and re-programming with flash memory) capability. AVR: The newest architecture by about 20 years. Designed for a pipeline, so has a very good clocks/instruction. Good range of devices: small and cheap with fairly high performance. It is very C friendly because of the RISC. Comparison:Selections: AVR=PIC;8051; Price: AVR=8051;PIC; For beginners: 8051;PIC;AVR; C language: AVR=PIC;8051; Anti-interference: AVR=PIC;8051; Final Choice We have used PIC in a few experiments, so we are familiar with it. Moreover, in university we just have equipment for program the PIC, so we decided to use the PIC. The chosen microcontroller and the reasons: PIC16F648 The PIC16F84 was chosen for its small size, easy reprogram ability and interrupts it is clocked at 4 MHZ by a ceramic resonator and it can be even powered by 4 AA rechargeable batteries (Very low consumption).These same batteries power the motors. This is usually not recommende d since surges in motor current can affect the processors operation, but with decoupling caps in place and the watchdog timer being used in the software no problems were experienced. The watchdog could reset the processor if it went stupid before you could ever see it act up. After all, we considered the number of inputs and outputs. The inputs are number of sensors we have which is 7, and outputs are motors. So PIC16F648 which we have used several times has enough bit (8-bit PORTA, 8-bit PORTB). Stepper Motors Unit:Servo motor/Stepper motor Servo motor: A servomotor (servo) is an electromechanical device in which an electrical input determines the position of the armature of a motor. Servos are used extensively in robotics and radio-controlled cars, airplanes, and boats. Stepper motor: A stepper motor (or step motor) is a brushless DC electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. The motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback me chanism (an open-loop controller), as long as the motor is carefully sized to the application. Comparison:Both types of motors offer similar opportunities for precise positioning, but they differ in a number of ways. Servomotors require analogue feedback control systems of some type. Typically, this involves a potentiometer to provide feedback about the rotor position, and some mix of circuitry to drive a current through the motor inversely proportional to the difference between the desired position and the current position Final Choice: Servo motor needs complex analogue feedback circuits. And we have used stepper motor before. However stepper motor will be given to us, so we chose stepper motor. The Driver UnitL298&L297/L293D A motor controller is a device or group of devices that serves to govern in some predetermined manner the performance of an electric motor.  A motor controller might include a manual or automatic means for starting and stopping the motor, selecting forward or reverse rotation, selecting and regulating the speed, regulating or limiting the torque, and protecting against overloads and faults. Three ways to drive a stepper motor: Use a transistor to drive each coil. But It was a little awkward to wire up the circuit Ã¢â¬â board space. Also, it requires 4 pins on the PIC to drive the motor.Use a driver array packaged in an IC. Don't forget to wire in the protection diodes! (i. e. SAA1027, L298, L293D) Use a specialized stepper motor driver chip. It would save on board space, and pin usage. As the price of stepper motor drive chip is very expensive and 4 transistors to drive each coil may make the board a mass. So we choose stepper motor driver IC. L298 has current capacity of 2A compared to 0. 6 A of a L293D. L293DÃ¢â¬â¢s package is not suitable for attaching a good heat sink; practically you canÃ¢â¬â¢t use it above 16V without frying it. L298 on the other hand works happily at 16V without a heat sink, so we choose L298.And in the datasheet we find out that itÃ¢â¬â¢s better to combine L298 with L297. * It needs to be considered that regarding to the temperature power supply is going to add to the circuit a heat sink needs to be included in the board otherwise it would melt. Software Design Technical Options, Critical Review and Final Design Choice The software to be used in order to program the pic CCS C Compiler, as it is the well-known software for the group. This software was used to do experiment laboratories for EE2A course and to use CCS C Compiler to program the robot will be more than adequate and helpful.Odd or even number of sensors Both odd and even numbers are possible to use, the group has chosen the odd to increase the accuracy and make the code more understandable and clear. As it will be explained how the program works, it will be clear how they both can be used. The Number of Sensors * 3: The program would work, but not accurate enough. All turns, no matter large or small will be reacted t he same. * 7: Again, the program will work, but needs far too much extra effort, increases the time of processing the data and makes the code very complicated. 5: Is a perfectly fine number, will give the opportunity to detect the turns in two different stages so that the robot can make the turns soon enough and with more accuracy. The shape in which the sensors are put together * An upside down V: Where the middle sensor is in the front, followed by two sensors, wider from each other in the back and followed by another two sensors, wider at the very back. This will not work because the turn is detected by the wider sensors later than the right time for to move to be taken from the robot. This method may be accurate but would not help the robot being fast. line: Where all the sensors are at the same level. This method is better than the latter but still will not make the robot to detect the larger turns sooner in order to make the reaction at the right time. * V: The middle sensor i s at the very back corner, two sensors with a wider distance comes next and the last two, again wider at the front. This method makes the robot understand the large angles sooner with the outer sensors, so that the robot will start turning sooner than the smaller angles which are detected by the middle sensors. The angle of the VThe angle should not be too small, because the robot will start the turns too early, and it should not be very wide because then it would not make any difference from the flat shape. This is to be experienced during the testing process but the decided angle at this time is 120 degrees. How does the program work? As it has been explained before, there are 5 sensors to be used in the robot. The recognition of the turns has been explained in 4 figures below. The green circles represent the sensors which have detected the black line and the red circles represent the sensors which have detected the white surface.The green circle is the logic Ã¢â¬Å"1Ã¢â¬ and t he red is the logic Ã¢â¬Å"0Ã¢â¬ . Normal positions of the sensors In this situation, when only the middle sensor detects the black line, the robot moves straight forward without any turns. The logic is Ã¢â¬Å"00100Ã¢â¬ 2. 5 cm Figure 4- The normal position of the sensors More than 50? turns including the 90? : When the turn is more than 50 degrees, the outer sensor feels the turn sooner than the middle sensor, so that the robot will start turning earlier, or if decided faster as well. The logic is Ã¢â¬Å"00101Ã¢â¬ . Figure 5-The more than 50? turns.It also needs to be said that if the large turns are happening for a very little while (for less than 4. 5 cm), the middle sensor will sense the turn first so that the robot would not change the direction to fast and get out of control. Less than 50? turn: When the turn is more than 50? , the middle sensor feels the turn first, so that the robot starts turning at a reasonable time to manage the turn. The logic is Ã¢â¬Å"00110Ã¢â¬ Figure 6-The less than 50? turns Approximately 50 degrees turns: At this situation, both middle and outer sensor feel the turn at the same time.The logic is Ã¢â¬Å"00111Ã¢â¬ . Figure 7- ? 50 ? Time Management plan Due to EE2G1 module, students have learnt how to manage their time in given projects using the graphs, charts and tables. Here is the Gantt chart that consists of two tables. The first one helps to analyze what tasks has to be done, when it has to be started and what amount of time is given and also gives the information about each task, if it is sequential or parallel. Task| Earliest Start (week)| Length (week)| Type| Dependent onÃ¢â¬ ¦| A. High Level analysis| Week 0| 1 week| Sequential| | B.Selection of Mechanical Design and Components| Week 1| 1 week| Sequential| A| C. Detailed Analysis of Electronics for Robot| Week 1| 1 week| Sequential| A| D. Mechanical Design| Week 2| 2 weeks| Sequential| B| E. Circuit Design| Week 2| 2 weeks| Sequential| C| F. Build Mechanic s| Week 4| 2 weeks| Sequential| D| G. Build Circuit| Week 4| 1 weeks| Sequential| E| H. Construction| Week 6| 1 week| Sequential| F, G| I. Programming| Week 3| 3-4 weeks| Parallel| D, E, F, G, H, | J. Testing| Week 7| 4 weeks| Sequential| H, I| K. Demonstration| Week 11| -| Sequential| J|Table 1 Ã¢â¬â Gantt Table Summarizing the first table, information should be transferred to the chart. The chart helps visualize all the given tasks and the time given to accomplish them. Week| 0| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 10| 11| (1) A. High Level Analysis| (1) B. Selection Of Mechanical Design and Components| (1) C. Detailed Analysis of Electronics for Robot| (2) D.Mechanical Design| (2) E. Circuit Design| (2) F. Build Mechanics| (1) G. Build Circuit| (1) H.Construction| (3-4) I. Programming| (4-5) J. Testing| DEMONSTRATION| Chart 1 Ã¢â¬â Gantt Chart Risk Assessment As everything else, this project has its own risks and possibility of troubles. We cannot stop the problems from happen ing, but we can consider the ways we would manage if they have happened.There are different types of problems which may occur, some with large possibility but manageable damage, some with very little possibility but disastrous damages. The group has come with some ideas about these risks and how to manage them which are as follows: Very possible, low cost and manageable risks Burning the electrical components such as the PIC or the power sources: 1. Keeping good care of the more expensive components, putting them in a position which brings the possibility of the damage to the least possible. 2.Having alternatives for each component, more for the cheap and more burnable ones, less for the more expensive and least burnable ones. Losing the documents, programs or components: 1. Taking good care of where the materials are saved or put, possibly write the places down or share with other group mates in case for memory loss. 2. Having a photo of each page of the written documents, copies o f the electronic stuff on different places, and having a list for the components we have to pack every time. The A planÃ¢â¬â¢s failure : 1. Having a plan Bs and Plan Cs for all the Plan As. . Plan Bs can be for a change in the A plan, but plan Cs are completely different methods in case the whole plan has been a whole of a lot of rubbish. 3. Having the responsible person ready for the plans when the failure comes so that the change can be quick and easy. Running out of time: 1. Having someone responsible for the plans to go as it has been decided in the time management plan, taking care of even slight late results to prevent the sum of smalls becoming a huge delay. 2. Stopping panic attacks or they will cause more delay. 3.Keeping everything simple and tidy in order to make the trouble shooting faster and easier. The plans we have specifically come up with for the Robot project 1. Taking good care of the PIC, having alternatives for all the components. 2. Saving the programs on me mory sticks, computer and email. 3. Keeping pictures of the critical pages of the log book. 4. Having an alternative way of programming for the line detecting bits. 5. Having some options for the components available in case the robot doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t work out with them. 6. Having a map of the circuit with all the explanations about wiring and connections. . Keeping the actual circuit nice and tidy, the wires low and the colors right. Components Wish List According to the design decisions, the list of components needed for the project can be made. There are some basic components required in order to accomplish the mechanical, electrical and software design of the robot, such as: * HDPE for the frame and chassis * 2 wheels * 1 skid * 2 DC stepper motors * Sensors * Circuit board * Capacitors, resistors, Diodes, Transistors (referring to the main components) * Microcontroller * LEDÃ¢â¬â¢s Every group is provided with 40 ? n order to buy the components needed. The table below shows the approximate price estimations: Wheels| ? 2-3| PIC16F648 (2)| ? 4| Sensors (5)| ? 5| HDPE plastic| ? 10| LEDÃ¢â¬â¢s| ? 5| Screw Box| ? 2| Resistors| ? 2| Capacitors| ? 2| Skid| ? 2-3| Heat Sink| ? 3| Conclusion This project is not only for making line follower race robot but it is also a great and realistic practice for group work and project management. This is a hard challenge and is only possible to manage with co-operation, hard work, motivation and enthusiasm. Each individual member learns how to cope with different opinions and ideas.They learn to be tolerant and do not let anything personal get involved in the work since this may ruin the friendly environment among the group members. By doing this project a lot of skills will be developed such as: * Group work * Time management and working by deadlines * Work break down in equal amount among group members * Decision making * Risk management * Budget management * Working with time limit and in stressful conditions * Starting a project from scratch, developing ideas and making improvements * Undertaking risks and responsibilities * Keeping good and reliable documentation Keeping motivation and encouragement among the group live or dead By the end of this project we will have done a complete project management plan and implementation. We will know how to face troubles and problems and hopefully this is going to be a great memory of how we learnt to manage a real project in practice. References Online Documents: * BASIC ROBOT MECHANICS TUTORIALS, (2005-1012). Society of Robots. Retrieved from http://www. societyofrobots. com/mechanicsbasics. shtml * Priyank PatilDepartment of Information Technology S. W. Nawawi, M. N. Ahmad, J. H.S Osman (2008). Ã¢â¬Å"Real-Time Control of a Two Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot * http://forum. pololu. com/ * * Ooi, Rich Chi (2003). Ã¢â¬Å"Balancing a Two-Wheeled Autonomous RobotÃ¢â¬ . University of Western Australia. Thesis B. Mechatronics Engineering. * Ong, Yin Chee; Abidin, M. S. B (2006). Ã¢â¬Å"Design and Development of Two Wheeled Autonomous Balancing RobotÃ¢â¬ , Center for Artificial Intell. ; Robotic (CAIRO), University Technology Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 4th Student Conference on Research and Development (SCOReD 2006), Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA, 27-28 June, 2006. Vivien Coelho; Stanley Liew; Karl Stol; Guangyu Liu (2008). Ã¢â¬Å"Development of a Mobile Two-Wheel Balancing Platform for Autonomous ApplicationsÃ¢â¬ . Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Auckland. 15th International conference on Mechatronics and Machine Vision in Practice (M2VIP08), 2-4 Dec 2008, Auckland, New-Zealand. * Jose Miranda (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"Application of Kalman Filtering and PID Control for Direct Inverted Pendulum ControlÃ¢â¬ . Master Thesis, California State University, Chico Spring 2009. * R. Hollis, Ã¢â¬Å"BallBots,Ã¢â¬ Scientific American, October 2006.Retrieved February 4, 2009. Available at the World Wide Web: http://www. sciam. com/article. cfm? id=ballbots * Pakdaman, M. ; Sanaatiyan, M. M. (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"Design and Implementation of Line Follower Robot,Ã¢â¬ Computer and Electrical Engineering, 2009. ICCEE '09. Second International Conference on , vol. 2, no. , pp. 585-590, 28-30 Dec. 2009 * Priyank Patil (2010), Ã¢â¬Å"AVR Line Following Robot,Ã¢â¬ Department of Information Technology K. J. Somaiya College of Engineering Mumbai, India. Retrieved Mar 5, 2010. Available at: http://www. kmitl. ac. th/~kswichit/ROBOT/Follower. pdf * Swope Design.Inc. , Ã¢â¬Å"Balancing Robots Made EasyÃ¢â¬ , Available at: http:// www. Balbots. com, 2004. * Miller Peter (2008), Ã¢â¬Å"Building a Two Wheeled Balancing RobotÃ¢â¬ , University of Southern Queensland, Faculty of Engineering and Surveying. Retrieved Nov 18, 2009. Available at: http://eprints. usq. edu. au/6168/ Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â [ 2 ]. Each Group Member [ 3 ]. Statements can be added to this contract upon the entire groupÃ¢â¬â¢s agreement [ 4 ]. Mobile Robot, Wikipedia website: [http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Mobile_robot] [ 5 ]. http://ikalogic. com/proj_mini_line_folower. php
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Iowa State University is a public research university with an acceptance rate of 91%. Located in the small city of Ames, Iowa State is about a half hour drive from Des Moines. ISUs strengths in teaching and research have earned it membership in theÃ Association of American Universities. Iowa State University typically ranks in the top 50 public universities in the United States, and the school has particular strengths in science, engineering and agriculture. ISUs College of Business is also popular among undergraduates. On the athletic front, the Iowa State Cyclones compete in the NCAA Division IÃ Big 12 Conference. Ã¯ » ¿Considering applying to Iowa State University? Here are the admissions statistics you should know, including average SAT/ACT scores and GPAs of admitted students. Acceptance Rate During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, Iowa State had an acceptance rate of 91%. This means that for every 100 students who applied, 91 students were admitted, making Iowa States admissions process slightly competitive. Admissions Statistics (2017-18) Number of Applicants 18,855 Percent Admitted 91% Percent Admitted Who Enrolled (Yield) 35% SAT Scores and Requirements Iowa State University requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 19% of admitted students submitted SAT scores. SAT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile ERW 548 682 Math 544 652 ERW=Evidence-Based Reading and Writing This admissions data tells us that most of ISUs admitted students fall within the top 35% nationally on the SAT. For the evidence-based reading and writing section, 50% of students admitted to Iowa State scored between 548 and 682, while 25% scored below 548 and 25% scored above 682. On the math section, 50% of admitted students scored between 544 and 652, while 25% scored below 544 and 25% scored above 652. Applicants with a composite SAT score of 1330 or higher will be particularly competitive for Iowa State. Requirements Iowa State does not require the SAT writing section. Note that Iowa State does not superscore SAT results; your highest composite SAT score from a single test date will be considered. ACT Scores and Requirements Iowa State University requires that all applicants submit either SAT or ACT scores. During the 2017-18 admissions cycle, 86% of admitted students submitted ACT scores. ACT Range (Admitted Students) Section 25th Percentile 75th Percentile English 21 28 Math 22 28 Composite 22 28 This admissions data tells us that most of ISUs admitted students fall within the top 37% nationally on the ACT. The middle 50% of students admitted to Iowa State received a composite ACT score between 22 and 28, while 25% scored above 28 and 25% scored below 22. Requirements Note that Iowa State does not superscore ACT results; your highest composite ACT score will be considered. ISU does not require the ACT writing section. GPA In 2018, the average high school GPA of Iowa States incoming freshmen class was 3.64. This data suggests that most successful applicants to Iowa State University have primarily A and B grades. Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph Iowa State University Applicants Self-Reported GPA/SAT/ACT Graph. Data courtesy of Cappex. The admissions data in the graph is self-reported by applicants to Iowa State University. GPAs are unweighted. Find out how you compare to accepted students, see the real-time graph, and calculate your chances of getting inÃ with a free Cappex account. Admissions Chances Iowa State University, which accepts over 90% of applicants, has a slightly selective admissions process. If your SAT/ACT scores and GPA fall within the schools average ranges, you have a strong chance of being accepted. Iowa State uses a mathematical equation to determine admission eligibility that gives weight to ACT or SAT scores, high school rank, GPA, and the completion of core courses. A high number in one area can help compensate for a lower number elsewhere. Admission is automatic for students who score highly enough on the index of GPA, test scores, rank, and course work. Iowa State University also offers a summer trial enrollment for students who are not admitted unconditionally. This program provides students with weaker academic measures an opportunity to prove that they are able to meet the challenges of college. In the graph above, the blue and green dots represent accepted students. As you can see, the majority of successful applicants had high school averages of B- or higher, ACT composite scores of 20 or higher, and combined SAT scores of 1000 or better (ERWM). Its also important to note that the university attracts plenty of A students with standardized test scores that are well above average. If You Like Iowa State University, You May Also Like These Schools Purdue UniversityOhio State UniversityUniversity of IowaNorthwestern UniversityUniversity of MissouriUniversity of Wisconsin - MadisonUniversity of Illinois - ChicagoMichigan State University All admissions data has been sourced from the National Center for Education Statistics and Iowa State University Undergraduate Admissions Office.